Touristic Information : Turkey
discussing history it is always difficult to know from which period
to actually begin. The earlier civilizations of Anatolia cannot
be ignored. Some historians take the advent of the Turks into Anatolia
in the 11C as the "beginning".
If this were to
be the case then history is limited to dating from the nomadic Turks.
It has to be noted that civilizations are never built without foundations.
Just like a wall made of bricks, they are all established upon former
civilizations. Therefore it is quite possible to see traces of the
very earliest cultures inherent in those that followed.
If we want to
speak about Turkey, we have to begin by going back to the very early
ages as the present country is an extension and mixture of people
who come from various origins. Stretching out on two continents,
Turkey is a cultural experience where you will find much to suit
your tastes and hopes of a great vacation whether you are fond of
nature, history, adventure or archaeology. Twenty different civilizations
have provided Turkey with a fascinating 10,000 year history. Surrounded
by crystal clear waters in four directions, Turkey generously offers
you her long shores and interior wonders of the past through the
existence of statues of gods and goddesses, temples, theaters, churches,
mosques and palaces.
political unification of Anatolia was achieved by the HITTITES, an Indo-European confederation that subdued the kingdoms of the central plateau
about 1750 BC. They established the Old Hittite Kingdom, eventually
ruling from BOGAZKOY (Hattusas). The confederation, whose chief
members were Luwians, Palaites, and Neshites, entered Anatolia from
well before 2000 BC. For the first century and a half, the Old Hittite
Kingdom was internally strong and militarily secure.
Under Hattusilis I (fl. c. 1560 BC) the Hittite kingdom began to expand into
northwest Syria. His adopted son, Mursilis I (fl. c. 1620 BC), raided down the
Euphrates Valley and defeated Babylon (c. 1600 BC). Thereafter the kingdom struggled
under a series of internal coups and royal assassinations until stability was
reestablished by Telepinus I (c. 1525 BC). About 70 years later came the second
major phase of Hittite political and military power.
Hittite Empire period was inaugurated by Tudhaliyas II (fl. c. 1460
BC), but its chief architect was Suppiluliumas I (r. c. 1380-1346
BC), who reconquered much of central Anatolia and dominated Syria
and the state of Mitanni in eastern Cappadocia Anatolia. The Byzantine
Empire is the name given to the continuation of the Roman Empire,
which--converted to Christianity and using Greek as its principal
language--flourished in the eastern Mediterranean area for more
than 1,000 years until its fall in 1453. The name Byzantine is derived
from BYZANTIUM, the city which CONSTANTINE I made his new capital
and renamed Constantinople (now ISTANBUL, Turkey). The three major
periods of Byzantine history--Early, Middle, and Late are characterized
by drastic changes in internal organization
The refounded Byzantine Empire had to face threats
from Westerners and from Turks. Gradually reduced in area, it finally
succumbed in 1453 to the Ottoman Turks, who made Constantinople
the capital of the OTTOMAN EMPIRE. In this final period, the landed
aristocracy dominated all provincial and central administrative
positions of the Byzantine Empire. The peasantry was reduced to
a servile status.. now its republic of Turkey and population around
70 millions and located between Asia and Europe Continentals.
The army consisted of mercenaries and a "feudal" levy
based on government properties awarded to great landlords in return
for military service. Venetian, Pisan, and Genoese merchants controlled
Byzantine commerce. The emperors of the Palaeologan dynasty repeatedly
tried to reunify the Orthodox and Catholic churches in return for
Western aid against the Turks, but this effort proved futile.
The State Structure of Turkey (City and Administration)
The Turkish Republic was established on the 29th
October 1923. At the head of the republic is the State Presiden,
who is elected for seven years by secret ballot. A majority of two
thirds is required be fore parliament can sit.
The Turkish goverment is made up of a prime ministers.
According to the decree estabished in 1982, 550 parliament members
sit in parliament.
The country is divided into 82 provinces which
are administered by myors, committees of municapal authorities and
citizen committees. Villages are administered by village elders
The surface area of Turkey is divided by the Dardanelles,
the sea of Marmara and the Bosphorus. In the west, Turkey has boundaries
with Greece (212km) and Bulgaria (269km). In the east and south
east, Turkey has boundaries with four countries: The Soviet Union
(610km) , Iran (454km), Iraq (331km), and Syria (870km). Geographically,
Turkey is a land-bridge between Europe and Asia.
The european section of Turkey is a fertile hilly
land. The Asian part of Turkey consist of an inner high plateau
(1000m) with mountain ranges along the north and south coasts. The
plaeau extends from the west to the Aegean coast, with many river
The western part is the most fertile section of
the country. In eastern Turkey, the northern Pontus Mountains meet
with the southern Taurus Mountains and from here the 1800m high
Anatolian plateau. From this plateau rise the particularly high
Vulkan Mountains over 3000m, while further south is the 5165m high
Mount Ararat, the highest mountain in the country.